Nevuah – Words & Resources

Ten terms are used to describe nevuah; here is a list of those words:

  1. Vision – Chazon חזון
  2. Speech – Dibbur* דיבור
  3. Saying – Amirah* אמירה
  4. Influx (drops) – Hatafah הטיפה
  5. Prophecy – Nevuah נבואה
  6. Command – Tzivuy ציווי
  7. Burden – Masa משא
  8. Parable – Mashal משל
  9. Metaphor (Figure Of Speech) – Melitzah מליצה
  10. Allegory (Riddle) – Chidah חידה

* See Sha’are Orah (Gates Of Light), R’ Yosef Gikatilla

These terms relate to ten different mystical levels experienced by the prophets. Other words pertaining to prophecy and the prophetic experience include:

mar’oat (Yechzekiel 1:1)
ra’oh (the “reverse vision” of chazon)
kri’ah
vayikar (bamidbar 23:4, Rashi)
bat kol

Rambam (Moreh Nevuchim, II45) lists eleven coded degrees of prophecy:

  1. the spirit of Hashem (ruach Hashem) – being moved to action
  2. holy spirit (ruach hakodesh) – force comes upon one causing speech or communication
  3. seeing a parable in a dream
  4. hearing articulate and clear speech in a dream without seeing the speaker
  5. being addressed by a man in a dream
  6. being addressed by an angel in a dream
  7. seeing He who is addressing one in a dream
  8. a vision or parable of prophecy during the day (not sleeping or dreaming)
  9. hearing speech in a vision of prophecy
  10. seeing a man who addresses one in a vision of prophecy
  11. seeing an angel who addresses one in a vision of prophecy
  12. Moshe’s unique level of prophecy: mouth to mouth

Articles on prophecy:

Ruach HaShem, The Spirit Of G-d
Torah and Nevuah
Prophets and Prophecy In Jewish Law
Becoming A Prophet
The Imaginative Faculty & Prophetic Influx
Ten Words To Designate Nevuah
Negative Attributes & Direct Prophecy
The Prophecy Of Moshe
Rambam’s Moreh Nevuchim
Mashiach’s Prophecy & The Secret Of Splitting The River
Prophets & Prophecy
Moshe’s Prophecy According To Reform Judaism
The Phenomenology Of True Dreams In MaimonidesI want this book!
What Is Prophecy?
Dreaming
More On Ruach Hakodesh

These links will be updated periodically. Please comment to suggest a link or additional resources – thanks!

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